Expression profile of microRNAs in the testes of patients with Klinefelter syndrome

Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosome aneuploidy. Typical characteristics of KS is oligozoospermia. Although several studies have described the natural history of the degenerative process germ cells in patients with KS, the molecular mechanisms that initiate this process is not well marked.

MicroRNA (miRNA) -mediated post-transcriptional control mechanisms has been increasingly recognized as an important regulator of spermatogenesis; However, only a few studies have evaluated the role of miRNAs in gonadal failure patients.

Here, we describe the differential expression profiles of miRNAs in samples of testicular tissue taken from patients with KS. We analyzed samples of testicular tissue from 4 KS patients and 5 control patients (obstructive azoospermia) through generation sequencing, which can provide information about the mechanisms involved in the degeneration of germ cells. Typical differential expression profiles for 166 miRNAs identified in KS patients: 66 were upregulated and 100 downregulated.

A interactome analysis conducted for 7 of the 20 miRNAs upregulated and downregulated. The results showed that the target gene is involved in the development process, proliferation, and differentiation of spermatogenesis, which may explain their role in the development of infertility. This is the first report of a miRNA expression profiles generated from samples of testicular tissue KS patients.

 Expression profile of microRNAs in the testes of patients with Klinefelter syndrome
Expression profile of microRNAs in the testes of patients with Klinefelter syndrome

MicroRNA profiles altered in neonatal pigs following the milk glands after giving birth to a nursing infant formula

Postnatal dietary modulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) and the effect on miRNA-mRNA interactions in tissues remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether dietary factors (formula vs. breastfeeding) affected milk miRNA expression and to determine whether these changes coincide with changes in mammary gland development in neonatal piglets. Female Yorkshire / Duroc pig pigs fed milk or milk- or soy-based infant formula milk cow (from postnatal day 2 days 21; n = 6 / group).

Different miRNAs expressed milk is determined by using miRNA profiles, followed by miRNA and mRNA expression characterized by reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Milk and soy formulas reduce the expression of miR-1, -128, -133a, -193b, -206 and -27a; Mirna modified mRNA down-regulation of gene expression (eg, Ccnd1, Tgfb3, Igf1r and Tbx3) consistent with increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis in the developing mammary gland.

Interestingly, down-regulation of miR-1, -128 and -27a also correlates with increased gene mRNA encoding such Hmgcr Hmgcs and cholesterol synthesis in the mammary gland in response to lower levels of cholesterol circulating. feeding formula milk affected miRNA profile in neonatal pigs, along with increased cell proliferation and gene expression of cholesterol synthesis, indicating the beginning of the nutritional modulation of miRNAs can contribute to the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis status and the proliferation of mammary glands develop during infancy.

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placenta-derived exosomes play an important role in cellular communication both in the mother and fetus. concentration and their composition is modified in some disorders of pregnancy, such as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Isolation and characterization of placental exosomes from serum, plasma and tissue from patients with GDM have been described previously; However, to the best of our knowledge, to date, no studies are available on placental exosomes isolated from the urine of patients with GDM.